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Find It: Cases by Citation: Home

A “case” in legal research refers to the reported decision of a court that explains the reasoning behind its ruling. Most state cases published in the United States are from state appellate and supreme courts. At the federal level, reported cases come from Federal District Courts (the trial courts of the federal judiciary), the Federal Courts of Appeals, and the U.S. Supreme Court.

Reporters and Citations

Case reporters are the books where cases are published. A case can be located using its full citation. For example, consider this case citation:

 Ellenburg v. Brockway, Inc., 763 F.2d 1091 (9th Cir., 1985)

  • The Case Name: Ellenburg v. Brockway, Inc.
  • The Reporter Citation: 763 F.2d 1091
  • The Court and Date: (9th Cir., 1985)

The reporter citation indicates where this particular case can be found: look in the reporter called “Federal Reporter, Second Series”, in volume 763, at page 1091 of that volume.

Nearly all reporter citations follow this same format and have these same three parts:

Most case law is published in general state and federal case law reporters. But there are many other reporters that also contain cases. Many of these only contain cases related to a specific legal subject, such as federal tax law. Here are a two example citations of these types of reporters:

  • 97 T.C. 120—United States Tax Court Reports
  • 151 LRRM 1121—Labor Relations Reference Manual

The full name of these miscellaneous reporters can sometimes be easily figured out, and sometimes not. If you can't figure out a reporter's full name from its abbreviation, try looking it up in Prince's Beiber Dictionary of Legal Abbreviations (2009), or ask one of the librarians for assistance.


Federal Reporters

Cases from the following federal courts can be found in the indicated reporters:

  • U.S. Supreme Court
    • United States Reports: U.S.
    • Supreme Court Reporter: S.Ct.
  • U.S. Federal Courts of Appeal
    • Federal Reporter (1880-1924): F.
    • Federal Reporter Second Series (1924-1993): F.2d
    • Federal Reporter Third Series (1993-present): F.3d
      • Note the library has print only through 2012.
  • U.S. District Courts
    • Federal Supplement (1932-1997): F. Supp.
    • Federal Supplement Second Series (1997-2014): F. Supp. 2d
    • Federal Supplement Third Series (2014-present): F. Supp. 3d.
      • Note the library has print only through 2012.

These are only the primary official case reporters for federal courts. For a complete listing, see Bluebook Table 1. It includes information on historical reporters and reporters for special courts (Tax Court, Court of International Trade, Bankruptcy Courts, etc.). 

Bluebook Tips

Citation rules for cases are found in Bluebook Rule 10 and Table 1. The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (Columbia Law Review Ass’n et al. eds., 20th ed. 2015). You might also want to look over the LibGuide called About Legal Citation

State Reporters

Cases from courts of all the fifty states can be found in one of the seven regional reporters:

The library only maintains up-to-date print cases for the reporter covering Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida.

  • Southern Reporter (1887-1940): So.
  • Southern Reporter Second Series (1940-2009): So. 2d 
  • Southern Reporter Third Series (2009-present): So. 3d

For a brief history of the West reporter system, see Taryn Marks, John West and the Future of Legal Subscription Databases, 107 Law Libr. J. 377, 398 (2015).


All original content copyright 2022 Loyola University New Orleans College of Law Library. This guide may be used for educational purposes, as long as proper credit is given. This guide may not be sold. Requests to republish or adapt a guide should be directed to the Library Director. Proper credit includes the statement: Written by, or adapted from, Loyola University New Orleans Law Library.